View of the city Archangelsk with boat and ship staffage.
Kunstanstalt Hildburghausen (1828-1874)
The German publishing company Bibliographisches Institut was founded 1826 in Gotha by Joseph Meyer, moved 1828 to Hildburghausen and 1874 to Leipzig. Its production over the years includes such well-known titles as Meyers Lexikon.
Arkhangelsk is a city and the administrative center of Arkhangelsk Oblast, in the north of European Russia. It lies on both banks of the Northern Dvina River near its exit into the White Sea. In the 12th century, the Novgorodians established the Archangel Michael in the estuary of the Northern Dvina River. The area of Arkhangelsk came to be important in the rivalry between Norwegian and Russian interests in the northern areas. Three English ships set out to find the Northeast passage to China in 1553; two disappeared, and one ended up in the White Sea, eventually coming across the area of Arkhangelsk. Ivan the Terrible found out about this, and brokered a trade agreement with the ship's captain, Richard Chancellor. Trade privileges were granted to English merchants in 1555, leading to the founding of the Company of Merchant Adventurers, which began sending ships annually into the estuary of the Northern Dvina. Dutch merchants also started bringing their ships into the White Sea from the 1560s. Scottish and English merchants also traded in the 16th century; however, by the 17th century it was mainly the Dutch that sailed to the White Sea area. In 1584, Ivan ordered the founding of New Kholmogory. At the time access to the Baltic Sea was still mostly controlled by Sweden, so while Arkhangelsk was icebound in winter, it remained Moscow's almost sole link to the sea-trade. In 1693, Peter the Great ordered the creation of a state shipyard in Arkhangelsk. However, he also realized that Arkhangelsk would always be limited as a port due to the five months of ice cover, and after a successful campaign against Swedish armies in the Baltic area, he founded St. Petersburg in 1703. In 1722, Peter the Great decreed that Arkhangelsk should no longer accept goods that amounted to more than was sufficient for the town (for so-called domestic consumption). It was due to the Tsar's will to shift all international marine trade to St. Petersburg. This factor greatly contributed to the deterioration of Arkhangelsk that continued up to 1762 when this decree was canceled. Arkhangelsk declined in the 18th century as the Baltic trade became ever more important.
|Place of Publication||Hildburghausen|
|Dimensions (cm)||11 x 15|
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