Soap and candle making. 97 / Stone Sawing. 98

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Article ID DB0645


Soap and candle making. 97 / Stone Sawing. 98


Decoraticve view on 6 pictures, depicting how to produce soap in a soap and candle factory. On reverse a stone saw factory.From Benjamin Butterworth, The Growth of Industrial Art, 1888, p.97, engraving by Julius Bien & Co. Photo-lith NY.


ca. 1888


Bien/Julius & Co. Photo-lith NY,

Historical Description

In classical Greece, craftsmanship (téchnai banausikaí, hence our modern word "banause") was not highly regarded, especially in the larger poleis. His main argument against the craft is the work inside a workshop. In the early Middle Ages, which were largely rural, crafts that later became specialized, such as the processing of foodstuffs, the production of textiles, or the making of utensils and buildings from wood, still played a vanishingly small role compared to home production. Special work techniques, such as bronze casting, painting and sculpture, were tied to monasteries. It was not until the High Middle Ages and the formation of cities that urban centers regained their ancient significance. The manufactured goods were offered for sale at markets or exhibited and sold in workshops and stores. An exceptional role was played by master builders and stonemasons who, moving from one (church) building lodge to the next, spread skills, innovations and stylistic developments across territorial borders. From the 16th to the 18th century, professional regulations, for example on the apprenticeship period, the apprenticeship fee, the journeyman's piece, the rolling or the master craftsman's examination, continued to increase with the rise in complexity of professional concepts and progressive specialization. The contemporary Estates literature recorded the most important trades, tasks, objects of work, and tools of the trade. Itinerant journeymen learned, handed down and disseminated different working techniques. Work certificates of the craftsmen were often calligraphically artistically designed craft lore. Craftsmanship had a proverbial golden bottom. The choice of profession was mostly made according to the order of status. Women, Jews, people born out of wedlock and the offspring of the so-called honorless were often denied access to traditional crafts. In accordance with economic needs, the development of certain technologies and the tastes of the time, new professions such as book printers, engravers, organ builders or wigmakers flourished in addition to traditional crafts such as butchers or goldsmiths. Inspired by the French Revolution and the industrialization that followed, freedom of trade slowly took hold in 19th-century Europe, granting every citizen the right to practice a craft of his or her own choice. In 1810, freedom of trade was introduced in Prussia; later, on June 21, 1869, freedom of trade was further extended by imperial law. Every citizen was now entitled to establish a craft business. In 1897 and 1908, the trade regulations were finally amended; today, they are generally regarded as the foundation of the dual system of vocational training.

Place of Publication New York
Dimensions (cm)44 x 34
ConditionPerfect condition


45.00 €

( A reproduction can be ordered individually on request. )