Adina Sommer`s Rare Antique Maps and Contemporary Art

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  • Translation

Article ID EUD1686
Artist Apian (1495-1552)
Petrus Apianus (1495 –1552), also known as Peter Apian, was a German humanist, known for his works in mathematics, astronomy and cartography. The lunar crater Apianus and minor planet 19139 Apian are named in his honour. In 1540, Apian printed the Astronomicum Caesareum, dedicated to Charles V. Charles promised him a truly royal, appointed him his court mathematician, and made him a Reichsritter (a Free Imperial Knight) and in 1544 even an Imperial Count Palatine. All this furthered Apian's reputation as an eminent scientist. Apian's work included in mathematics—in 1527 he published a variation of Pascal's triangle, and in 1534 a table of sines— as well as astronomy. In 1531, he observed a comet and discovered that a comet's tail always point away from the sun. (Girolamo Fracastoro also detected this in 1531, but Apian's publication was the first to also include graphics.) He designed sundials, published manuals for astronomical instruments and crafted volvelles (Apian wheels), measuring instruments useful for calculating time and distance for astronomical and astrological applications. Apian was followed by his son Philipp (1531–1589), who, in addition to his own research, preserved the legacy of his father.
Title not titel
Year ca. 1590
Description Very detailed map shows the part of Bavaria noth of Regensburg with Dietfurth, Berching, Neumarkt, Schwandorf ect.
The existence of a Bavarian tribal duchy has been documented since 555, which became part of the Frankish domain under the Merovingians. From 1180 to 1918 Bavaria was ruled by the Wittelsbachers as a territorial duchy. Bavaria experienced a period of numerous divisions into individual duchies from 1255 to 1503. Shortly before the first reunification, Ludwig IV. In 1328 became the first Wittelsbacher to become emperor, which meant a new high point in power for Bavaria. At the same time, however, the prince-archbishopric of Salzburg finally separated from the mother country Bavaria. In 1429, after the Straubing-Holland line became extinct, the Duchy of Bavaria-Straubing was divided between the Munich, Ingolstadt and Landshut lines. In 1447, Bavaria-Ingolstadt fell to Bavaria-Landshut, which in turn was won by Bavaria-Munich in the War of Succession in Landshut in 1503. The division of the country came to an end through the Primogenitur Act of Duke Albrecht IV of 1506. Bavaria took a leading position in the Counter-Reformation and emerged from the Thirty Years' War with territorial gains and the rise to the Electorate. In 1620, the troops of the Catholic League, under the leadership of the Bavarian general Tilly, defeated the Protestants in the Battle of the White Mountains near Prague. Then Tilly had the Palatinate occupied. As a thank you, Maximilian I received the electoral title in 1623 and the Upper Palatinate he occupied as war compensation in 1628. After the war, Elector Ferdinand Maria devoted himself to the reconstruction of the devastated country and pursued a cautious neutrality policy. During the War of the Spanish and Austrian Succession and in the course of Maximilian II. Emanuel's great power policy and later his son Karl Albrecht, Austria was twice temporarily occupied by absolutist Bavaria. In 1705 the Bavarian people rose against the imperial occupation. Only the battle of Aidenbach on January 8, 1706 ended with the complete defeat of the popular uprising. After Karl Albrecht's coronation, large parts of the electorate were occupied again until 1744. Karl Albrecht's son Maximilian III. Joseph finally ended the great power policy of his predecessors in 1745 and devoted himself to internal reforms. After the extinction of the old Bavarian line of the Wittelsbacher, the double electorate of Kurpfalz-Bavaria was created in 1777 under the reign of the Elector Karl Theodor from the Palatinate line of the Wittelsbacher. At the time of Napoleon, Bavaria was initially on the side of France and was able to record large territorial gains through secularization and mediatization. Salzburg, Tyrol, Vorarlberg and the Innviertel region, which was lost in 1779, fell temporarily to Bavaria. In the Peace of Pressburg, which was concluded on December 26, 1805 between France and the German Emperor Franz II, Bavaria, allied with Napoleon, was proclaimed a kingdom. King Max I. Joseph's Minister Maximilian Graf von Montgelas is considered the creator of the modern Bavarian state. In 1806 Napoleon Bonaparte elevated Bavaria to a kingdom. At the Vienna Congress in 1814, Bavaria was able to retain a large part of the area's profits as a victorious power, including what was now northern Bavaria, parts of Swabia and the Palatinate. In 1918 the Wittelsbach monarchy collapsed in the November Revolution. King Ludwig I, who had ruled since 1825, developed the Bavarian capital Munich into an art and university city. After the occupation by American troops, Bavaria became part of the newly founded Federal Republic in 1949.
Dimensions (cm)31,5 x 42,5
ConditionVery good
Coloringoriginal colored
TechniqueCopper print


67.50 €

( A reproduction can be ordered individually on request. )